W. Michael King, after a period of design and production in the professional audio recording industry, entered the field that is now known as EMC in 1960 (at that time the concept was defined simply as a segment within the discipline of systems integration and spectrum management) when still in education with the Capitol Radio Engineering Institute (CREI – accredited EE program). He has been participating in the field of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) engineering for over fifty years. Within that period, he has been: engaged in the EMC definition, design, evaluation, implementation, management and execution of well over (an estimated) one thousand programs and projects; engaged in contracts with over 1,000 project and systems developers with over 400 clients. During his tenure in the engineering and management disciplines he has held positions that, as a partial though significant list, include (in sequence): Lab EMC supervisor; Lab manager; Systems Engineer; Director, Systems Engineering; Project Manager for ELINT; Senior Technical Specialist (Airesearch); Chief Electronics Engineer (Teledyne Radar Relay Division); Manager of EMI/EMC Operations; Technical Program Monitor for NAVSEC/SYSCOM; EMC Integration Advisor to NAVWEPS/NWC; Advisor/Integration USAF/MOL Orthogonal Array; Plant Operations General Manager; EMC Program Manager; Policy Advisor to Senior Corporate Staffs (Government and Commercial Projects); and General Program/Hardware manager for many projects.
During his initial period of engagement in programs allocated broadly to government communications, surveillance, counterops, and military projects (both AD or Deployment phases), he was involved in the development and evaluation of more than four hundred programs. Though a thorough list cannot be delineated, these programs include the: Radar System for the XB-70 Experimental SSB; Evaluation and Design of RFI Controls for the Electro-Hydraulic Control Launch System/Atlas ICBM; Evaluation/Design of EMI Power Suppression -Distribution/Hardening, Launch Control Centers/Silo Arrays, Minuteman ICBM Program; Minuteman ICBM LCC/Silo EMC Prototype Evaluation-Verification/Vandenberg AFB; EOS Laser IR Illumination/Starlight Night Vision AD Project; EMC Integration of Laser-Directed Ranging and Weapons EOS Projects (LAD, LAW and Eagle); Performance/Threat Evaluation C-SAM/ECM Systems B-52 Fleet; Metrology Environment for Nuclear Rocket Propulsion (RIFT Program); Integration/YO-3/NVAP (IR Laser) Airborne Experimental Surveillance System; SPS-48 Radar Lab Implementation; Design/Evaluation, UASF Project Bulldog (Laser Guided Bombs); NAVSEC SHORTSTOP Radar Antenna Array; USAF MOL/Program; Suppression/Control USAF SLC-6 Gantry System -Vandenberg AFB; Deep Space Ion Engine/NASA (EOS-JPL); EMC Control USAF/GAU-7 Airborne Cannons; Avionics Sub-Contracts for S3A MAD Aircraft; USAF FLAWS (Warning Systems) AH56; IHAS (Helicopter Avionics Systems); S/A Sub-systems, Tomahawk Project; SONAR Record/monitor, NAVSHIPS/Trident; IFF/SIF Program Transponders; NEMP Evaluation and Hardening of Event Detector Systems (including EOS and Beta-Photon Detector Arrays); EMC of Multiple Flight Control and various ECM Systems in many delivery platforms; DCA Projects and DOD, Multiple Shielding Methodology and Coupling Studies; NASA/Apollo Modules; ELINT Programs/CounterOps; Special Projects, USAGS (Fort Belvoir). Suffice it to note that these projects spanned sensitive applications and technologies across the frequency range from sub-hertz to tens of gigahertz, with system power amplitudes ranging from minus 140 dbm to energy in megajoules.
He was engaged in "The Colloquium" at "The Hexagon", a by-invitation only DOD assembly called by Tri-Service systems heads to advise DOD on policies for the following decade, and accepted appointments (by-invitation only) to DOD Advisory Groups on Mil-STD policies and technical approaches. His efforts in commercial systems EMC were initiated with general radiated field susceptibility studies as well as ESD analysis and response studies circa 1969 (which led to his adaptation of common-mode (inductive "Bal-Un") implementation to commercial techniques as lumped simulations of long transmission line losses to mitigate common-mode responses), and in collaborative efforts with the German VDE measurement group that began circa 1972. About that same time, based upon his studies to limit circulating common-mode currents in ferro-magnetic hulls, he devised a method of utilizing inductors for impedance elevation in ground paths for which he was awarded a patent. By 1974 he had authored some of the first commercial EMC systems performance recommendations for susceptibility/immunity evaluations that were prepared and implemented for specific (major) corporations. It may be noted that the requirements of those documents resemble the immunity requirements issued in the European regulatory standards over a decade later.
Mr. King was responsible for the laboratory studies that resulted in the first nationally-distributed report that identified the responses (and response mechanisms) of Cardiac Pacemakers to Radiated Electromagnetic Fields, (released through affiliation with SAE/AE-4) officially coordinated and sanctioned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Radiological Health (FDA/BRH). These results were presented by Mr. King to conventions of the American Heart Association and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, under the sanction of the FDA/BRH. The resulting standards and methodologies (evolved in the early 1970's from this work) assure the immunity of cardiac pacemakers to influences when exposed to intense Electromagnetic fields at the present time. In addition, Mr. King has been intensely involved in solving EMC (emission and susceptibility-immunity response) issues in critical applications of electronic medical devices, at all levels of design and implementation. He has presented performance reports directly to the staff of the FDA.
When at the symposium known as POWERCON—I, a study commission of power supply designers had concluded (in a verbal report to the plenary body) that "it was not possible" for switching power supplies to comply (using primary power line filtering) simultaneously with the conducted EMI emission regulations of the German VDE and the restrictions for safety ground reactive leakage current, the chair invited Mr. King to make a spontaneous presentation. Based upon design experience gained during development of high impulse current (primarily LASER) or "secure" systems, and verified in a collaborative project with a major power supply manufacturer (circa 1971-73) in the development of >3kW switching power supplies, Mr. King penned the schematic of a fourteen element integration - differential and common-mode filter concept. The filter concept, disclosed for the first time to the plenary body, provided a transmission loss of 70 dB and a leakage current of less than 2 milliamperes (250 VAC). The design technique quickly became ubiquitous in the power supply industry.
Since 1976, Mr. King has served as an independent EMC Advisor, and currently has an internationally based clientele of (primarily) commercial corporations. Many of the lumped model concepts describing emission and susceptibility in commercial systems were first presented in these forms by Mr. King in the WESCON 1980 program. Mr. King was active in participating in the rule making process of the Federal Communications Commission that adopted EMI Emission Rules for "Computing Devices" (FCC Rules Part 15-J, Docket 20780) and is extensively quoted by FCC staff in the Final Reconsideration Report and Order (1981). Mr. King is now generally recognized for his work in Systems EMC Emission and Susceptibility Control for commercial systems, occasionally serving as a project manager or integrator when requested. Through his tenure, he has developed and related many concepts of EMC design applications to systems. Upon invitation, he has collaborated on the formations of many networks and standard practices (often anonymously), including the study group for 10/100BASEt. Terms such as the "3W" and "10W" (trace-width imaging) rules, "ground stitches/nulls" (as descriptions for discontinuities in distributive transmission line to implement EMC in systems transfer mechanisms), RF monopole structures models (circuit-device to heat-sink with mitigating techniques), the "V-plane undercut" technique to minimize reflections and resonance (and field fringing) of un-terminated planes in the Z-axis, the implementation (and terms) of "moats with bridges", "picket fences" and "three-dimensional methods" for circuit board partitioning, are all terms initiated by Mr. King.
Mr. King's original research and test methodology development in the area of Personnel Electrostatic Discharge has been widely utilized by industry, and his efforts form the basis of many standards documents and standard practices. In 1979, he published one of the first research studies that described the dynamic waveform continuum inherent in the personnel ESD event. That study, extended to an advanced effort between 1981 and 1982, altered the state of the art of understanding the dynamic ESD mechanism. (These more recent efforts were co-published with Mr. David Reynolds of Digital Equipment Corp.) Among the mechanisms initially described through these efforts were: the first report exhibiting ESD field displacements in sub-nanosecond rise times, (signifying ESD spectra into the multi-GHz range); the dynamic alteration of wave-shapes as the ESD initialization amplitudes are varied, (yielding the "amplitude-spectrum bandwidth inter-dependency effect" and the related systems-amplitude response dependency implication - reported in 1985 IEEE Regional Conference on EMC and the EOS/ESD Symposium -1987); the first explanatory model representation of the ESD network as a sequentially cascaded transmission line; the first explanatory model of the boundary charge migration within the human body as implied by the data; the first suggestions of the boundary field displacement as a surface charge dislocation; the first reported waveforms of displacements of humans both with metallic objects intervening in the discharge path and human tissue directly as the path, and the first reported wave-forms suggesting the impulse spectra from the ESD of furnishings. (Based on this background, he contributed extensively to the development of ANSI ESD Document, C63.16-1993.) Mr. King's development of ESD test methodologies, initiated in 1974, were adapted by individual corporations. These became widely disseminated throughout the electronics industry, which by 1979/80 were used as internal standards by well over five hundred corporations. Many ESD methods described in current corporate and international standards can be traced this origination.
Dr. King has authored a major work on the subject of EMC, entitled, “EMCT: Electromagnetic Compatibility Tutorial”, released2 by the IEEE Standards Information Network, and Elliott Laboratories. This work is presented only in the format of a CD-ROM. It consists 1,600 screens of instruction on the subject of EMC design, and may be descriptively reviewed through the link,
Dr. King's full profile and Curriculum Vitae may be seen at
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